Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN 0378-8482 versión impresa</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN 0719-9562 versión en línea</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <table border="0" width="100%" cellspacing="4" cellpadding="4"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="26%"> <p> </p> </td> <td width="74%"> <p><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis</span></span></span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">is a peer-reviewed, open access, electronic journal published jointly by the Instituto Geográfico Militar and the Disaster Risk Management Observatory of the Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins. The journal publishes high quality hypothesis-selected and purely descriptive studies that improve our understanding of Earth Sciences at all kinds of spatial scales (local, regional or global)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Instituto Geográfico Militar y Observatorio en Gestión de Riesgo de Desastres, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins en-US Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 0378-8482 <div class="page"> <h3 style="text-align: left;">Copyright notice:</h3> <p><em> Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis</em> retains the economic rights (copyright) of the works published in the <em>Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis</em>. The reuse of the content is allowed under a license:</p> <h3><strong>CC BY</strong></h3> <h3><strong>Recognition</strong></h3> <p> </p> <div class="grid_2 alpha" style="text-align: center;"><img src="" alt="" /></div> <div class="grid_2 alpha" style="text-align: center;"> </div> <div class="grid_2 alpha" style="text-align: center;"><br />This license allows others to distribute, remix, tweak and build upon your work, even for commercial purposes, as long as you are acknowledged as the author of the original creation. This is the most helpful license offered. It is recommended for maximum dissemination and use of the materials subject to the license.</div> <div class="grid_2 alpha">For more information see the following links: <h2><a href=""><span class="cc-license-title">Attribution 4.0 International</span><span class="cc-license-identifier"> (CC BY 4.0) </span></a></h2> <h2><a href=""><span class="cc-license-title">Atribución 4.0 Internacional</span> </a><span class="cc-license-identifier"><a href=""> (CC BY 4.0)</a></span></h2> </div> </div> Editorial Lautaro Rivas Reveco Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 Historic evolution of the Military Geography Institute of Chile <p>The important growth and transcendence that cartography reached at the beginning of the 20th century, brought as a consequence the creation of an autonomous organization that would dedicate itself to such studies and works. That is why, in 1922, the Military Geographic Institute was created with the aim of being the official State entity, in charge of everything related to the cartography and survey of the national territory, giving continuity to the work previously carried out by the Office of Geography, Cartography and Topography, dependent on the technical office of the General Staff. But it is in the year 1955 where the elaboration of Conventional Cartography began by means of aero photogrammetric flights, with a totally analogous methodology. The passing of the years and the arrival of new technologies, allowed the Military Geographic Institute at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, to migrate all its analogical procedures to digital procedures, which allowed to increase the accuracy and speed in all the procedures, as well as solving calculation difficulties that directly intervene in Earth sciences and particularly in cartography.</p> <p>Today, 1:25,000 scale digital cartography is the main product generated at the IGM. The process began when satellite images and orthophotos with high resolution standards were acquired. From these, a 3D environment was generated that will be the basis of the photo-interpretation that makes up the geographic information.</p> Alejandro Pinto Espinosa Marcos Meza Espinoza Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Pinto3 Geographic visualization for the management of the rural territorial development in Argentina <p>Currently there are important changes on a global scale that descend to rural areas. In these transformation scenarios, governments, agencies and international organizations seek new paradigms of intervention that allow the interrelationship of both public and private actors to implement policies that take advantage of the synergies resulting from their joint actions.</p> <p>The territorial approach to rural development is thus presented as a strategic vision that can contribute to strengthening the economic, social and environmental development of rural areas. For this, it is necessary to establish substantial management models in accordance with the competitiveness and attraction of the territories, which requires knowing their strengths and weaknesses.</p> <p>In order for scientists to be able to provide compelling elements in aiding decision-making, it is not only necessary to have a good knowledge of the disciplinary field of the subject in question, but also to make use of the applied science that current technologies provide. In this sense, Geographic Information Systems are a tool that allows good political decisions to be made based on georeferenced scientific information.</p> <p>The main idea of the work that has been developed is to present the process of agriculturization registering the Argentina territory from the last decades of the last century to the present, managing the territory at sight. This is exemplified using some results of a previous project, which was developed with the use of GIS technology</p> Analía Silvia Conte Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Conte16 Tsunami inundation chart (CITSU) as a tool to support coastal area management: a case study for Coronel <p>Due to the geographical location of the Chilean territory, within a convergent margin to the west of the Pacific Basin, its coastline is permanently exposed to the threat of tsunamis of seismic origin, both from near and distant field sources, thus revealing the necessity for coastal communities to have tools to allow them to carry out adequate territorial planning in such a way that spaces can efficiently be managed to avoid the loss of human lives and to mitigate damage to infrastructure. In the present study, the degree of exposure of the county of Coronel due to tsunami threat was determined using numerical modeling methodology and integrating it through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with territorial databases to interrelate the degree of communal exposure. The obtained georeferenced thematic hazard maps, generated through this methodology, allowed the identification and visualization of the most critical geographic areas for the county, revealing their usefulness as tools to adequately manage the risk and support the implementation of the necessary prevention and mitigation actions for the coastline of Coronel, taking into consideration factors such as vulnerability reduction and territorial planning.</p> Cecilia Zelaya Igor Olivares Nayadet Pulgar Carolina Henriquez König Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Zelaya35 Glacier retreat with optical and radar images: Olivares Glacier and Juncal sur <p>Most of the glaciers in Chile have experienced strong retreats and surface reductions from historical times to the present in response to global climate changes (1). Climate change is not the only factor, given that both the Anthropic intervention and/or natural factors may contribute to accelerating glacial shrinkage. Studies and measurements carried out by researchers have revealed that the Andean glaciers of the central zone are increasingly vulnerable to processes of mass loss and fragmentation as a result of the darkening of the ice and its effect on the absorption of solar radiation, a phenomenon known as the albedo effect. Not only are they losing surface, but they are also thinning up to two meters per year, a figure that is no less, since a large part of the glaciers in the central zone, and in particular in the Metropolitan Region, are no more than a few tens of meters Tall.</p> <p>Having knowledge of the variation of the glacial area is essential for the decision-making process in the management and conservation of solid water reserves and thus face potential water crises in the region over time.</p> <p>Through remote sensing techniques and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the aim is to determine the variation in area and volume that the Olivares Alfa, Beta, Gamma and Juncal Sur glaciers have experienced and at the same time calculate the current speed of movement Juncal Sur Glacier.</p> Claudia Ibáñez Joselyn Robledo Ceballos Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Ibanez45 Spatial accesibility in the commune of Quinta Normal for Education, Health and Security Services using the 2sfca method <p>Territorial planning is key to ordering the territory based on equity for public and private services, which is why the how, where and why it is planned becomes relevant. The COVID-19 pandemic put in check several territorial paradigms that were believed to have been resolved, one of them was related to how the population interacted with services in an asymmetric way and in the hardest moment of the crisis, services in order to “adapt ” to the new times, they generated a symmetrical relationship where these went towards the people, therefore, the distance to relevant services such as education, health or security play an important role in being able to plan the day to day and this is where the problem arises of access to services related to territorial planning.</p> <p>In order to know the spatial accessibility, one of the ways is to use the two-factor spatial accessibility econometric formula (2SFCA) for the district of Quinta Normal, located in the northwestern zone of the Metropolitan Region, Province of Santiago, Chile. Where, it is sought to know what is the existing spatial accessibility from the blocks of Quinta Normal towards the respective services of education (establishments basic level - average of public character), health (establishments corresponding to the public system) and security (Carabineros de Chile and Police de Investigaciones de Chile), using ArcGIS Pro software.</p> José Córdova-Fredes Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Cordova52 Spatial information applied in disaster risk management <p>Latin America and the Caribbean is the second most natural disaster-prone region in the world. Several South American countries have witnessed natural and man-made threats, emergencies and disasters. In recent years there have been devastating fires, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruptions, droughts, landslides, landslides and alluviums. Spatial information and its products, obtained from remote sensors, are key tools that facilitate the development of different applications for disaster risk management. This article provides a look at free access to space information and its applications, emphasizing disaster risk reduction, through global cooperation, through organizations, space agencies and institutions.</p> <p>Keywords: Geospatial Data. Remote sensing. Geographic information systems. emergencies. Risk. Reduction.</p> Martin Calvo Rey Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Calvo63 Proposal of a methodology in the survey of land use, case study: La Reina Military Camp <p>Currently, the Army contemplates within its administration the fiscal lands, a territorial distribution from Putre to Antarctica, according to a specific mission and an organization focused on both the Land Force and the Generating Force. It is in this context that, through the application of Geomatics tools, the objective is to develop a methodology for surveying land use in the Chilean Army. For which the procedure will be designed and the use of land in the Campo Militar la Reina (CMLR) will be determined as a study area, through the use of images from different open sources. In general terms, it intends to apply a methodology based on the gathering of<br />requirements by the Stakeholders (Headquarters of Properties and the Department of Infrastructure of theEducation and Doctrine Command), with the purpose of establishing a geospatial database for the use of land, specifically for the different fiscal lands existing in the Chilean Army. Taking into consideration the preceding background, 05 (five) images from different open sources were evaluated, with the purpose of selecting the most appropriate image, by establishing different factors, which served as parameters to make the selection, among them its color and grayscale histograms, spatial resolution, and temporality. Subsequently, the elements<br />were vectorized, these being housed in a geospatial database, obtaining the relevant and important information for decision making.Key words: land use, geospatial database, methodology, images.</p> Pedro Castillo Figueroa Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Castillo87 The study of geography between 1885 and 1922: prussian roots of the Military Geographical Institute of Chile <p>The modernization of Chile’s Army is a process that has taken place organically throughout the years, however, there exist events that have accelerated said process. As a result of the War of the Pacific, the need for the acceleration of the modernization process was stated, and to that end, the hiring of the prussian instructor Emil Körner was carried out after the war. The instructor’s vision led to a series of reforms and reorganization that brought the Army closer to the prussian model of organization and instruction, and pushed it to professionalization. Körner was one of the key players in the adoption of the prussian model in Chile’s Army under the so-called <em>prussianization</em> process, one that meant a constant looking towards Germany as a source of inspiration.</p> <p>The effects of prussianization lasted for a long time, and even though they impacted a wide range of areas, ones that prove interesting to analyze are the ones from the academic and instructional levels. As such, the present analysis carries out a general review to later focus on academic reforms and how they made way to the creation of the Military Geographic Institute, and how it evolved with the passage of time.</p> Mauricio Ibarra Zoellner Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Ibarra78 Estimation of crop evapotranspiration from drone flights <p>In this work, a two-source decoupling model called "STSEB" (Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance) is applied, whose purpose, through local information on air temperature, meteorology, topography, as well as additional data in situ, is to calculate the crop evapotranspiration through multispectral and thermal images obtained from a drone.<br />The foregoing, with the purpose of classifying the priority irrigation areas of a plot of almond trees and being able to compare the results with the current planning of water treatments obtained by means of precision agriculture instruments. At the end of the work, it was possible to determine that there is an accuracy of 75% between the irrigation treatment plan of the administrators of the plot and the one obtained through the application of remote<br />sensing techniques.</p> Vicente Quezada Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Geográfica de Chile Terra Australis 2023-01-09 2023-01-09 58 2 10.23854/07199562.202258esp.Quezada99